Saturday, August 22, 2020
  1. Rb2[InBr5] : Rb = 2 In = 1 Br = 5
  2. 2.27 grams RbBr
    1. Molar Mass of RbBr = 165.372 grams per mole
    2. 0.0137266284497980 moles of RbBr
  3. Indium atomic weight = 114.818 grams per mole
  4. Indium(III) Hydroxide = 165.84 grams per mole
    1. 0.0137266284497980 moles / 2 = 0.006863314224899 moles of Indium
    2. 0.006863314224899 moles of Indium = 0.7880320 Indium
    3. 0.006863314224899 moles of Indium Hydroxide = 1.1382120 grams

Sunday, August 16, 2020

Finkelstein Reactions: 1.7 equivalents of NaI, reflux in freshly distilled acetone for 3 days (11-Iodo-1-undecene example synthesis)

  1. Finkelstein Reaction: Synthesis of Diiodomethane
    1. Dichloromethane
      1. Molar Mass = 84.93 grams per mole
      2. Density = 1.3266 g/cm3 (20 °C)
      3. Melting Point = −96.7 °C
      4. Boiling Point = 39.6 °C 
    2. Diiodomethane
      1. Molar Mass = 267.836 grams per mole
      2. Density = 3.325 g/cm3 (STP)
      3. Melting Point = 5.4 to 6.2 °C
      4. Boiling Point = 182.1 °C
    3. Acetone
      1. Molar Mass = 58.080 grams per mole
      2. Density = 0.7845 g/cm3 (25 °C)
      3. Melting Point = −94.7 °C
      4. Boiling Point = 56.05 °C
    4. Sodium Iodide
      1. Molar Mass = 149.894 grams per mole
      2. Density = 3.67 g/cm3 (25 °C)
      3. Melting Point = 661 °C
      4. Boiling Point = 1304 °C
      5. Solubility (g/100mL) = 184 g in water at 25 °C and 302 g in water at 100 °C, 42.57 g in alcohol at 25 °C, 39.9 g in acetone at 25 °C, 1 g in 1 mL glycerol (no temperature given)
  2. 15 grams of dry DCM (0.1766160 moles)
  3. 0.60049452490 moles of NaI = 90.011 grams
  4. 250 mL dry acetone
Wednesday, August 12, 2020
  1. Synthesis of p-Benzoquinone 
    1. In a 500 mL round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer are placed 250 mL. of 2 per cent sulfuric acid, 0.125 g. of vanadium pentoxide, 27.5 g. of hydroquinone, and 15 g. of sodium chlorate.
      1. C1V1=C2V2
        1. (79%)(x) = (2%)(250 mL)
        2. (2 x 250) / 79 = 6.329 mL
    2. The mixture is vigorously stirred for about three hours, when the green quinhydrone first formed is converted to yellow quinone. The temperature of the reaction mixture rises to about 40°C. Do not let the temperature exceed 40°C.  The reaction is usually complete in three and one-half to four hours.
    3. The flask is then disconnected and cooled under the tap, the mixture is filtered with suction, and the quinone is washed once with about 25 cc. of cold water.
    4. After drying in a desiccator over calcium chloride, the product melts at 110–112°. This material is pure enough for most purposes.
    5. Extraction of the filtrate and washings with four 25-cc. portions of benzene or DCM yields more quinone.
    6. Very pure quinone can be obtained either by vacuum sublimation or recrystallization from boiling ligroin (b.p. 90–120°). One hundred grams of the crude quinone requires about 1.2 L of ligroin for recrystallization and yields 92–97 g. of bright yellow quinone, m.p. 111–113°.

Sunday, August 2, 2020

  1. Synthesis of Cesium Nitrate Cs2SO4 + Ba(NO3)2 → 2CsNO3 + BaSO4
    1. Molar mass of cesium sulfate = 361.87 grams per mole
    2. 5 grams of cesium sulfate = 0.0138171166441 moles
    3. Molar mass of barium nitrate tetrahydrate = 333.3979 grams per mole
    4. 0.0138171166441 moles of barium nitrate tetrahydrate = 4.6065976731 grams
    5. Molar mass of cesium nitrate = 194.91 grams per mole
    6. Theoretical yield of cesium nitrate = 5.3861 grams

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